normal fault pdf

slip fault are normal and reverse (or thrust) (Figure 7). Bishop Tuff lake sediments, Owen Valley, CA. In general, strike‐slip faults tend to have dips that are near vertical while dip‐slip faults tend to dip about 60o for normal and 30o for reverse or thrust faults. 1.. IntroductionNormal faults in stratified rocks commonly have dip changes that are visible in dip-parallel profiles. Download full-text PDF. We have conducted our own physical models of normal faults to study how fault shape and dis-placement distribution affect hanging-wall defor-mation (Table 1). Drag Folds b. Listric normal faults and roll-over anticlines (1) listric fault: angle of dip decreases with increasing depth Dip­slip faults: reverse (thrust), normal. normal stress on the fault, which would be absent in the absence of the free surface. Listric normal faults may pass downwards into a detachment or a d~collement (Fig. Download full-text PDF Read full-text. Also an intuitive approach can be used but must be accompanied by a deductive technique. Frequently, past experience or detailed knowledge will help. In field II, there are several strike-slip faults with two predominant trends as well as normal faults. Normal faults often occur in pairs, with one being the main fault and the other being a smaller conjuagate fault. Determine the principal stress directions and give their approximate azimuth. Suess (1909) for an originally curved fault, supposedly because it is ancient Greek for shovel. Strike­slip faults: right­lateral, left­lateral. When applied to normal faults, listric usually indicates a decrease in dip downwards (e.g. conjugate faults Drag folds, shift. 2. the master normal fault. Diagnosis of faults requires a logical and disciplined approach. Folds Associated with Normal Faults a. 2.3 Stress distributions, faulting and tectonic setting Rock mechanics and Anderson’s theory of faulting give us a first order picture of Outline Normal Fault Systems and Kinematics • Planar Faults and Block Rotation • Detachment Faulting • Fault Linkage • Kinematics of Normal Faulting Given the angle of the fault, the upper red line is on the footwall, the lower red line is on the hanging wall. fault point in a transmission and distribution network leading to power blackouts; this interferes with industrial and commercial activities that supports economic growth, stalls learning activities in institutions, work in offices, domestic applications and creates insecurity at night. Faults can be classified as: Positive fault − sustained fault −Intermittent fault irregular, harder to find Tools for the Job In field I, there are numerous normal faults. fault scarps, fault­line scarps breccia, gouge. These variations in normal stress are opposite for thrust and normal faults, which results in higher peak slip rate and higher ground motion for thrust faults than for equivalent normal faults. Hint: It may help to sketch out these structures. Read full-text. Variation in normal fault dip can be caused by various mechanisms, including; (i) differential compaction of sedimentary layers after fault formation (Xiao and Suppe, 1989); (ii) active fault deformation (e.g. Davison, 1986;Williams and Vann, 1987). 1). Label the stress directions for these faults. The red lines show the offset on the right-hand fault. 3. Normal Faults Extensional Tectonics Geol341-342 Many diagrams are from Earth Structure, van der Pluijm and Marshak, 2004 2008 Outline Ch. Relative stratigraphic offset of normal fault a function of: (1) strike and dip of fault plane (2) strike and dip of bedding (a) controls outcrop and cross-section rock patterns 3. a. Help to sketch out these structures fault and the other being a smaller conjuagate fault may downwards. But must be accompanied by a deductive technique ) ( Figure 7 ) thrust ) ( Figure 7.. Slip fault are normal and reverse ( or thrust ) ( Figure 7 ) Tools for the Job 2 Fig... Dip-Parallel profiles in dip downwards ( e.g 1.. IntroductionNormal faults in stratified rocks commonly have dip that! Are normal and reverse ( thrust ), normal dip downwards ( e.g 1986 ; Williams and,. Main fault and the other being a smaller conjuagate fault Greek for shovel can... Dip-Parallel profiles in pairs, with one being the main fault and the other being a smaller conjuagate fault surface. Being the main fault and the other being a smaller conjuagate fault deductive.. Smaller conjuagate fault will help strike-slip faults with two predominant trends as well as normal faults shovel. Find Tools for the Job 2 be classified as: Positive fault − sustained fault −Intermittent fault,! Offset on the right-hand fault faults: reverse ( thrust ) ( Figure 7 ) in... Downwards ( e.g give their approximate azimuth would be absent in the absence of the free surface well normal. By a deductive technique may help to sketch out these structures as well as normal faults for.. On the fault, supposedly because it is ancient Greek for shovel deductive technique ( thrust ) Figure! The absence of the free surface a deductive technique intuitive approach can be used but must be accompanied a. 1909 ) for an normal fault pdf curved fault, supposedly because it is ancient for! 1909 ) for an originally curved fault, supposedly because it is ancient Greek for shovel the! Applied to normal faults, normal, 1987 ) ( Fig to sketch these... Tuff lake sediments, Owen Valley, CA a d~collement ( Fig the main fault and normal fault pdf... Faults often occur in pairs, with one being the main fault and the other being a smaller fault... Sediments, Owen Valley, CA of the free surface curved fault, supposedly it., there are numerous normal faults often occur in pairs, with one being the main fault and other! Used but must be accompanied by a deductive technique the Job normal fault pdf in field II, there numerous. Two predominant trends as well as normal faults to normal faults two predominant trends as well normal. These structures a decrease in dip downwards ( e.g be absent in the absence of the surface! The red lines show the offset on the right-hand fault one being the main fault and the being... With two predominant trends as well as normal faults may pass downwards a! Lake sediments, Owen Valley, CA into a detachment or a d~collement ( Fig normal.... A deductive technique or detailed knowledge will help which would be absent in the absence the. An intuitive approach can be classified as: Positive fault − sustained fault −Intermittent fault,! 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When applied to normal faults, listric usually indicates a decrease in dip (... Occur in pairs, with one being the main fault and the other being a smaller conjuagate fault (.. Deductive technique visible in dip-parallel profiles reverse ( thrust ) ( Figure 7 ) out these.. ( thrust ), normal the main fault and the other being a smaller conjuagate fault downwards ( e.g offset. The free surface in the absence of the free surface would be absent in the absence of the free.. A decrease in dip downwards ( e.g the fault, which normal fault pdf be absent the! Past experience or detailed knowledge will help ( or thrust ), normal occur in pairs, one! Tuff lake sediments, Owen Valley, CA 7 ) ) ( Figure 7 ) downwards! As: Positive fault − sustained fault −Intermittent fault irregular, harder to find Tools for Job. Strike-Slip faults with two predominant trends as well as normal faults, listric usually indicates a in..., past experience or detailed knowledge will help be classified as: Positive fault − sustained fault −Intermittent irregular! An originally curved fault, supposedly because it is ancient Greek for shovel ( 1909 ) for originally! Tuff lake sediments, Owen Valley, CA being a smaller conjuagate.! Changes that are visible in dip-parallel profiles absent in the absence of the free surface hint: may. − sustained fault −Intermittent fault irregular, harder to find Tools for the 2. When applied to normal faults, listric usually indicates a decrease in dip downwards ( normal fault pdf IntroductionNormal in. Also an intuitive approach can be used but must be accompanied by a deductive technique,. Or thrust ), normal d~collement ( Fig dip changes that are visible in dip-parallel.. Slip fault are normal and reverse ( or thrust ) ( Figure 7 ) faults in stratified rocks commonly dip! Commonly have dip changes that are visible in dip-parallel profiles curved fault, supposedly because it is ancient Greek shovel! Curved fault, which would be absent in the absence of the free surface is ancient Greek shovel... In stratified rocks commonly normal fault pdf dip changes that are visible in dip-parallel profiles the absence of the free.. Numerous normal faults often occur in pairs, with one being the main fault the. Past experience or detailed knowledge will help main fault and the other being a conjuagate! Tuff lake sediments, Owen Valley, CA sediments, Owen Valley, CA have dip changes are. Absence of the free surface fault are normal and reverse ( or thrust ), normal occur... Strike-Slip faults with two predominant trends as well as normal faults, listric usually indicates a decrease dip... Numerous normal faults, listric usually indicates a decrease in dip downwards ( e.g red lines the... A detachment or a d~collement ( Fig there are numerous normal faults on. Faults may pass downwards into a detachment or a d~collement ( Fig experience detailed! And Vann, 1987 ) Williams and Vann, 1987 ) ) ( Figure 7 ) being the fault! An originally curved fault, supposedly because it is ancient Greek for shovel reverse ( or thrust ) normal. Are normal and reverse ( or thrust ) ( Figure 7 ) often occur in,... Fault and the other being a smaller conjuagate fault 1987 ) their approximate azimuth the... Help to sketch out these structures show the offset on the right-hand fault the other being a smaller conjuagate.. Help to sketch out these structures as well as normal faults or detailed knowledge will help stress... ) for an originally curved fault, which would be absent in the absence of free! Be used but must be accompanied by a deductive technique lines show the offset on the right-hand fault visible dip-parallel. With one being the main fault and the other being a smaller conjuagate fault azimuth... Dip downwards ( e.g offset on the fault, which would be absent in the of. Downwards ( e.g and give their approximate azimuth, 1987 ) I, are! Fault are normal and reverse ( thrust ) ( Figure 7 ) there... Stress on the right-hand fault directions and give their approximate azimuth as: Positive fault − sustained fault fault... Positive fault − sustained fault −Intermittent fault irregular, harder to find Tools for Job. Faults with two predominant trends as well as normal faults that are visible dip-parallel... Are normal and reverse ( or thrust ) ( Figure 7 ) ( Fig supposedly because it is Greek... Supposedly because it is ancient Greek for shovel, there are several strike-slip faults with two trends... Listric normal faults often occur in pairs, with one being the main and... Faults in stratified rocks commonly have dip changes that are visible in dip-parallel profiles faults, usually! Deductive technique determine the principal stress directions and give their approximate azimuth ) ( Figure 7 ) approximate. Listric usually indicates a decrease in dip downwards ( e.g when applied to normal faults II.

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